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GNSS ADOPTION FOR
ROAD USER CHARGING

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the infrastructure that allows users with a compatible device to determine their position, velocity and local time by processing signals from satellites in space. GNSS signals are provided by a variety of satellite positioning systems, including global constellations and Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS).

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GLOBAL CONSTELLATIONS

  • GPS: The first GNSS, fully operational since 1995, is man-

    aged by the US Department of Defence.

  • GLONASS: The Russian GNSS, completed in 1995 and fully operational since 2011, is managed by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

  • • Galileo: Europe’s GNSS, currently under development as the only civil GNSS, is owned and managed by the European Union.

  • • BeiDou (COMPASS): The Chinese GNSS, set to super- sede the COMPASS regional system operating since 2000, is managed by the governmental China Satellite Navigation Office.

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GNSS

GNSS is not used to toll roads. Instead, it tolls vehicles, regardless of which type or class of roads they drive on.