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GNSS ADOPTION FOR
ROAD USER CHARGING
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the infrastructure that allows users with a compatible device to determine their position, velocity and local time by processing signals from satellites in space. GNSS signals are provided by a variety of satellite positioning systems, including global constellations and Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS).
GPS: The first GNSS, fully operational since 1995, is man-
aged by the US Department of Defence.
GLONASS: The Russian GNSS, completed in 1995 and fully operational since 2011, is managed by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
• Galileo: Europe’s GNSS, currently under development as the only civil GNSS, is owned and managed by the European Union.
• BeiDou (COMPASS): The Chinese GNSS, set to super- sede the COMPASS regional system operating since 2000, is managed by the governmental China Satellite Navigation Office.
GNSS is not used to toll roads. Instead, it tolls vehicles, regardless of which type or class of roads they drive on.